Efflux transporters in the blood-brain interfaces--in vitro and in vivo methods and correlations.

CímEfflux transporters in the blood-brain interfaces--in vitro and in vivo methods and correlations.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsKrajcsi P, Jani M, Tóth B, Erdő F, Kis E, Beéry E, Sziráki I
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Start Page419
KulcsszavakABCB1, ABCC4, ABCG2, BCRP, blood–brain barrier, blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, brain microdialysis, efflux transporters, MRP4, P-glycoprotein

Sufficient brain exposure is crucial to the success of CNS drugs. The twofold greater attrition rate in clinical development of CNS drugs over the respective attrition rate of non-CNS drugs is due to lack of efficacy. It is generally thought that poor brain exposure is at least partly responsible for this, as the concentration-time profile at the brain target site is critical for efficacy. Efflux transporters in the blood-brain interfaces play a crucial role in modulation of permeability of drugs across these interfaces. Validation of preclinical tools to correctly predict brain exposure in humans is essential.

This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo tools to detect and characterize interactions of drugs with efflux transporters relevant to blood-brain interfaces. Furthermore, the article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and the limitations of their application, in addition to covering in vitro - in vivo correlations.

A more detailed validation of in vitro efflux transporter assays employing primary brain endothelial cultures is needed. This should go along with mapping uptake transporters expressed in the blood-brain interfaces. With the availability of specific inhibitors, utilization of in vivo methods such as brain microdialysis is increasing. Once transporter-humanized mice are available, we may witness a further increase in applications of in vivo methods.